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APA Citation Style

Page history last edited by evantheus@gmail.com 11 years, 5 months ago



APA Citation Style


In Text Citations:


1.  Short quotations of fewer than 40 words:

  1. According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p.199).
  2. Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?
  3. She states, “students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why. 


2.  Long Quotations (Block Quotes) longer than 40 words:

Omit quotation marks, start the quotation on a new line, indent five spaces from the left margin:

Jones’s 1993 study found the following:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.  This difficulty may have arisen because many students fail to purchase a style manual and they fail to ask their teacher for help. (p.199).

The evidence that Jones gathered…


3.  Quoting No Author:

When you cite a work that has no author, no date, and no page numbers use the first few words of the title in quotation marks, then put n.d. for not date. 

Ex: In another study of students and research decisions, it was discovered that students

succeeded with tutoring (“Tutoring and APA,” n.d.).


4.  Paraphrasing:

  1. In a recent study of student performance (Jones, 1998),
  2. Jones (1998) compared student performance…
  3. In 1998, Jones compared student performance…
  4. Researchers have indicated that more is expected of students in higher education (Hudson, 2001) and secondary education (Taylor & Horning, 2002).
  5. Paraphrasing with 3-5 authors the first time you reference them: (Bradley, Calhoun, Davis & Fitch, 1998).
  6. Paraphrasing with 3-5 authors after the 1st reference:  (Bradley et al., 1998).
  7. Paraphrasing with 6 or more authors all the time: (Bradley et al., 1998).
  8. With no author, use the first identifying words of the title: (“The Journey,” 1998).


5.  Citing Personal Communications = email messages, interviews, speeches, telephone conversations (these in-text references are not to appear on the References list at the end of your paper because they are non-retrievable):

  1. J. Burnitz (personal communication, September 20, 2006) indicated that…
  2. In a recent interview (J. Burnitz, personal communication, September 20, 2006) I…



Citing References at the End of your Paper:


  1. Begin reference list on new page.  The page begins with the word References, centered at the top in the middle.  (If the references take up more than one page, do not re-type the word References on sequential pages, simply continue with the list). 
  2. Arrange entries in alphabetical order by author’s last name.
  3. Use only one space after all punctuation.
  4. The first line of the citation is flush left.  Lines thereafter in a single citation are indented.
  5. Double space between citations.
  6. Use italics for titles of books, newspapers, magazines, and journals.
  7. Only capitalize the first letter of the title of books, newspapers, etc.  But you capitalize journal titles and publishing companies.





Journal Article with 1 Author:

Simon, A. (2007). Perceptual comparisons through the mind’s eye. Memory and Cognition, 23,



Journal Article with 2 Authors:

Becker, M. B., & Rozek, S. J. (1995). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues, 32,



Book with 1 Author:

Paloutzian, R. F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.



Book with 2 Authors:

Strunk, W., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.



Edited Book:

Letheridge, D., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education. New York: Praeger.



Article / Chapter in an Edited Book:

Shea, J. D. (1996). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker (Ed.), Religion and mental

     health (pp.70-84). New York: Oxford University Press.


Web document (no date):

Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved August 3, 2006, from



Web document (no author):

Gender and society. (2007). Retrieved December 3, 2006, from http://www.trinity.edu



Journal Article from an Internet-only Journal:

Bergen, D. (2006, Spring). The role of pretend play in children’s cognitive development. Early

     Childhood Research & Practice, 4(1). Retrieved February 1, 2004, from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu



American Psychiatric Association. (2004). Diagnostica and statistical manual of mental disorders

     (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: World Book Press.



Click on the links below for information on other citation styles:

Chicago Citation Style

MLA Citation Style

MLA 9 Citation Style





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